The African continent is comprised of 54 nations, each with its own independent government and sovereignty, GDP, culture, natural resources, language(s), military, and religion. The treasure trove of mineral and raw material wealth has scarcely been touched and the continent's largely untapped fertile lands could feed the world. Herewith is Jewel of Africa, an interactive adventure in the cradle of mankind, an exploration of nations from A-Z in alphabetical order.
Mozambique: A Multiparty
democracy 32-million strong
The Republic of Mozambique is a country in southeastern Africa, bordering South Africa, Swazi- land, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The Comoros are situated offshore to the northeast, and Madagascar lies to the east across the Mozambique Channel.
Mozambique is still recovering from the destruction wrought by nearly two decades of civil war. Many refugees fled their homes, the economy shriveled under socialism, agriculture withered, and education suffered. These privations came after centuries of neglect under the colonial domination of the Portuguese.
The previously socialist FRELIMO party still is the dominant force in the country. But the multiparty government elected in the 1990s has made large strides in resurrecting Mozambique, moving toward privatization and a free market and making national and municipal elections progressively more transparent.
After World War II, while many European nations were granting independence to their colonies, Portugal hung onto the concept that Mozambique and other Portuguese possessions were overseas provinces of the mother country, and emigration to the colonies soared. Mozambique's Portuguese population at the time of independence in 1975 was about 250,000. In 1962, several anti-colonial political groups formed the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), which initiated an armed campaign against Portuguese rule in 1964.
After 10 years of sporadic warfare and major political changes in Portugal, Mozambique won its independence on June 25, 1975.
Following the April 1974 coup in Lisbon, Portuguese colonialism collapsed. In Mozambique, the military decision to withdraw occurred within the context of a decade of armed anti-colonial strug- gle, initially led by American-educated Eduardo Mondlane, who was assassinated in 1969. At the time of independence, the leaders of FRELIMO's military campaign rapidly established a one-party state allied to the Soviet bloc and outlawed rival political activity. FRELIMO eliminated political pluralism, religious educational institutions, and the role of traditional authorities.
The new government gave shelter and support to South African (African National Congress) and Zimbabwean (ZANU) liberation movements, while the governments of first Rhodesia, and later apartheid South Africa, fostered and financed an armed rebel movement in central Mozambique called the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO). In addition to civil war and economic collapse, the first decade of independence was marked by the mass exodus of Portuguese nationals and nationalization.
During most of the civil war, the government was unable to exercise effective control outside urban areas. An estimated one million Mozambicans perished, 1.7 million took refuge in neighboring states, and several million more were internally displaced. In the third FRELIMO party congress in 1983, President Samora Machel conceded the failure of socialism and the need for major political and economic reforms. He died, along with several advisers, in a suspicious 1986 plane crash. His successor, Joaquim Chissano, continued the reforms and began peace talks with RENAMO.
With a new constitution that provided for a multiparty political system, market-based economy, and free elections, the civil war ended in October 1992. Under United Nations supervision, peace fin- ally came to Mozambique. By mid-1995, the refugees who had sought asylum in neighboring
Maputo is the capital city of Mozambique. A port city on the Indian Ocean, bearing 1.1 million people, Maputo is a showcase of preserved Portuguese colonial architecture. Many turn-of-the-century buildings are in the downtown jacaranda-lined Baixa neighborhood. The bronze-domed CFM Maputo Railway Station (bottom), for example, was completed in 1916. The Baixa also has an expansive Municipal Market. The neoclassical City Hall is in the nearby Praça da Independência square (2nd bottom).
Maputo is a blend of old-world Portuguese-styling, and ultra-mod- ern architecture of the 21st century in the Islamic mosque (above), the Catholic Cathedral (right), Radisson Hotel (below). Maputo has
earned nicknames City of Acacias and Pearl of the Indian Ocean.
The city is specifically known for its distinct, eclectic architecture, with Portuguese colonial Neoclassical and Manueline styles along- side modern Art Deco, Bauhaus, and Brutalist buildings. The historic Baixa de Maputo district is the downtown area. Maputo has a vibrant cultural scene, with many restaurants, music and performance venues, and the local film industry. Maputo’s economy is centered around its port, through which much of Mozambique’s imports and exports are shipped.
Mozambique is blessed to have a modern transport network of miles of paved roadway, and overpasses. Modes of transportation in Mozambique include rail, road, water, and air. There are rail links serving main cities and connecting the country with Malawi, Zim- babwe, and South Africa. On the Indian Ocean coast are large seaports includ- ing Nacala, Beira and Map-uto, with further ports being developed. There are 2,330 miles of navigable inland water-ways, and a major international airport
at Maputo, 21 other paved airports, and more than 100 with unpaved runways. The Mozambican railway serves as terminals for separate lines to the hinterland.
Dubbed the “Pearl of the Indian Ocean,” Mozam- bique is situated between Tanzania to the north and South Africa, with a coast stretching roughly 1,535 miles along the Indian Ocean dotted with popular beaches like Tofo, Wimbi, Ponta Mamoli, and Nuarro, as well as offshore marine parks. In the Quirimbas Archipelago, a 155-mile stretch of coral islands, mangrove-covered Ibo Island has colonial-era ruins surviving from a period of Portuguese rule.
The Bazaruto Archipelago farther south has reefs which protect rare marine life including dugongs. Ponta Mamoli still reigns as one of his favorite spots in the country; a special region sandwiched by two national parks—Mkuze Game Reserve in South Africa and Maputo Elephant Reserve—and the land has a very low human population, which makes it pristine and beautiful. Ponta Mamoli offers Ponta Beach Resort, Main Camp site, North Beach Road, Ponta do Ouro, Mozambique. These beautiful camps can be found in Ponta Do Qura, Mo Oura, Mozambique Beach, Ponta Beach Camp
– Private Campsites. ... Ponta Beach Camp Main Camp also know as Tandje Beach Resort.
The Board of Directors of the African Development Bank Group has approved a $47.09 million grant for the first phase of Mozam- bique’s Pemba-Lichinga Integrated Development Corridor, a Special Agro-Industrial Processing Zone.
The grant, from the African Development Fund, will help improve agricultural productivity and agribus- ness development in the Niassa province by advan- cing institutional capacity, skills, and entrepreneur- ship to spur agricultural value chain growth. The project will pilot improved policy and development coordination between the Niassa province and national departments, especially with the Ministry of Industry and Commerce and the Ministry of Agricul- ture and Rural Develop- ment. Special Agro-Indus-
trial Processing Zones are integrated development initiatives designed to concentrate agro-processing activities within areas of high agricultural potential to boost produc- tivity, integrate production, processing, and marketing of selected commodities.
These zones will enable agricultural producers, processors, aggregators, and distributors to operate in the same vicinity to reduce transaction costs and share business development services for increased productivity and competitiveness. Coupled with bringing adequate infrastructure (energy, water, roads, ICT, etc.) to rural areas of high agric- ultural potential, SAPZs will attract investments from private agro-industrialists/ entrepreneurs to contribute to the economic and social development of rural areas. The initiative is in line with the Mozambique National Development Strategy to improve living conditions through economic transfor- tmation of the economy — African Development Bank Group
states to avoid war and drought had returned, as part of the largest repatriation witnessed in Africa. An estimated four million of those internally displaced also returned to their areas of origin.
Geography and climate
At 309,475 square miles Mozambique is the world's 36th-largest country. It is comparable in size to Turkey. The country is divided into two topographical regions by the Zambezi River. To the north of the Zambezi River, the narrow coastal strip gives way to inland hills and low plateaus. Rugged highlands are further west; they include the Niassa highlands, Namuli or Shire highlands, Angonia highlands, Tete highlands and the Makonde plateau, covered with miombo woodlands. To the south of the Zambezi River, the lowlands are broader with the Mashona- land plateau and Lebombo Mountains located in the deep south.
The country is drained by five principal rivers and several smaller ones with the largest and most important the Zambezi. The country has four notable lakes: Lake Niassa (or Malawi), Lake Chiuta, Lake Cahora Bassa and Lake Shirwa, all in the north. The major cities are Maputo, Beira, Chimoio, Pemba, Inhambane, Xai-Xai, Lichingaare Nampula, Tete, and Quelimane.
Mozambique has a tropical climate with two seasons, a wet season from October to March and a dry season from April to September. Climatic conditions, however, vary depending on altitude. Rainfall is heavy along the coast and decreases in the north and south. Annual precipitation varies from 19.7 to 35.4 inches depending on the region, with an average of 23.2 inches. Cyclones are common during the wet season. Average temperature ranges in Maputo are from 55.4 to 75.2 degrees Fahrenheit in July and from 71.6 to 87.8 degrees in February.
Some 236 species of mammal have been recorded in Mozambique, of which 17 species are considered threatened. Elephant, rhinosceros, buffalo, hippopotamus, and giraffe inhabit Mozambique. Ungulates include the warthog, and 20 species of antelope including eland, Lichtenstein's hartebeest, greater kudu, sable antelope, nyala, waterbuck, wildebeest, and bushbuck. Smaller animals endemic to Mozambique include rodent, shrew, 60 species of bat and hedgehogs. Carnivores include lions, leopard, hyena. Cheetah, genet, mongoose, and jackal. Primates include bush baby, velvet monkey, blue monkey, and yellow baboon.
Large numbers of birds are either resident in or migrate across Mozambique; 768 species having been recorded, including 34 globally threatened species. Some notable examples include the lesser jacana, the crab-plover, the mangrove kingfisher, the Böhm's bee-eater, the racket-tailed roller, the African pitta, the green-headed oriole, the collared palm thrush, the pale batis, the lowland tiny greenbul, the lesser seedcracker, and the locust finch.
There is also a rich fauna of reptiles and amphibians, with 225 species of reptile recorded in the country (as compiled by the Reptile Database), and 90 species of amphibian (compiled by AmphibiaWeb). There are numerous species of snake, with venomous species including the puff adder, cobra, black mamba, and boom- slang. Non-venomous snakes include the mole snake, and the egg-eating snake.
The Nile crocodile is only likely to be found in protected areas. The savannah monitor is the largest lizard in the country, but more common are the much smaller skinks, agamas, chamaeleons and house geckos. The leopard tortoise inhabits here as well as three species of freshwater terrapin.
With a long coastline, Mozambique boasts numerous marine vertebrates, including roughly 20 whale species, 10 variety of dolphin, dugong, brown fur seal, and southern elephant seal. The country has a large number of marine mollusc species, as well as plentiful numbers of terrestrial snails and slugs.
Mozambique has been a multiparty democracy since adoption of the 1990 constitution. The executive branch comprises a president, prime minister, and Council of Ministers. There is a National Assembly and municipal assemblies. The judiciary comprises the Supreme Court, provincial, district, and municipal courts. Suffrage is universal at 18.
The Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) and the Mozambican National Resistance (Renamo) remain the country’s main political forces, followed by the Mozambique Democratic Movement (MDM). Frelimowon the 2019 presidential and legislative elections in a landslide . Frelimo also secured a majority in all 10 provinces, thus electing governors in each province.
Renamo, the former rebel group that waged a bloody civil war that ended in 1992, has maintained military bases after the UN-backed Rome Peace Accord. Ever since the end of the civil war, the country has registered flare-ups of armed confrontations and violence. A new peace accord was reached in August 2019, nevertheless violated several times by a Renamo breakaway military faction known as Military Junta.
However, new Renamo leader, Ussufo Momade, who took the reins of the party following the passing of Afonso Dhakama, has shown resolve and determination in pursuing the peace deal despite facing internal backlash from members of his military wing. The August peace deal, under implementation, aims at achieving greater pacification of the country by integrating Renamo residual fighters into the national army, and dismantling Renamo military bases located around the country.
Meanwhile, Mozambique is grappling with another so-called Islamic insurgency in parts of the gas-rich province of Cabo-Delgado. In February 2021, more than three years after the start of the insurgency, 798 incidents of conflict in Cabo Delgado have been recorded, with nearly 4,000 fatalities and 600,000 refugees. An estimated three million people are projected to face high levels of food insecurity across the country due to the combined effects of the conflict in the North, inclement weather, and COVID-19 mitigation, which have restricted economic activity.
While allegiances dating back to the liberation struggle remain important, Mozambique's foreign policy has become increasingly pragmatic. The twin pillars of Mozambique's foreign policy are ongoing good relations with its neighbors, and the expansion of ties to development partners.
The Maputo government has, for much of the insurgency, routinely declined international help. But with the jihadi group Ansar al Sunna (ASWJ) increasing in strength, international assistance is now being accepted with greater regularity. Thus far, the US has sent a special forces detachment to provide counterinsurgency training to Mozambican forces. Portugal and the European Union are offering assistance as well. Maputo has requested military assistance from South Africa, but Ramaphosa declined on the basis that the insurgency is too big for a bilateral response.
The relevant multilateral security pact in the region is the Southern African Development Community (SADC), which apparently lacks the necessary funding to provide significant assistance. Further potential outside financial assistance from the European Union, South Africa or the US should not be ruled out, though it is unclear at present what the method of providing such assistance would be. SADC has not been particularly successful at conflict resolution and donors may well seek a different vehicle for providing their assistance.
The official currency of Mozambique is the metical, but the nation also embraces the US dollar, rands, and most recently, Euros. Mozambique’s economy is expected to gradually recover in 2022, but substantial downside risks remain due to uncertainty surrounding the path of the coronavirus) pandemic. While the economy registered its first contraction in 2020 in nearly three decades, growth is expected to rebound over the medium-term, reaching about 4 percent in early 2022.
The country’s main challenges include maintaining macroeconomic stability considering exposure to commodity price fluctuations, and making further efforts to reestablish confidence through improved economic governance and increased transparency. Moreover, structural reforms are needed in support of the currently struggling private sector. Another major challenge is diversifying the economy away from the current focus on capital-intensive projects and low-productivity subsistence agriculture, while strengthening the key drivers of inclusion, such as improved education and health service delivery, which could in turn improve social indicators.
The most precious resource in the Republic of Mozambique are its people. The main ethnic groups in the nation are Makhuwa, Tsonga, Makonde, Shangaan, Shona, Sena, and Ndau, 70 percent of whom are employed in agriculture.
Traditional Mozambican exports include cashews, shrimp, fish, copra (dried coconut), sugar, cotton, tea, and citrus fruits. Most of these industries are being rehabilitated. Mozambique now is less dependent on imports for basic food and manufactured goods because of steady increases in local production.
The population of Mozambique is 32.1 million according to the latest United Nations data as of July 1, 2021. Life expectancy in Mozambique is 40 years for both men and women. Young people (up to 14 years) make up 42.7 percent of the population; the median age is 18.3. The majority of the population (70 percent) lives below the poverty line, and the gross national income per capita was US$310 in 2006 (World Bank estimate).
Mozambique's major ethnic groups encompass numerous subgroups with diverse languages, dialects, cultures, and histories. Many are linked to similar ethnic groups living in neighboring countries. The north-central provinces of Zambezia and Nampula are the most populous, with about 45 percent of the population. The estimated four million Makua are the dominant group in the northern part of the country; the Sena and Ndau are prominent in the Zambezi valley, and the Tsonga and Shangaan dominate in southern Mozambique.
The Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the government generally respects this right in practice. According to the most recent census conducted by the National Institute of Statistics in 2017, 59.8 percent of the population of Mozambique are Christian, 18.9 percent are Muslim (mainly Sunni), 13.9 percent had no religion, 4.8 percent practice animism or other beliefs, and 2.5 percent of the population is unspecified.
Religious communities are dispersed throughout the country. The northern provinces are predominantly Muslim, particularly along the coastal strip, but some areas of the northern interior have a stronger concentration of Protestant or Catholic communities. Protestants and Catholics are generally more numerous in the southern and central regions, but Muslim minority populations are also present in these areas. The National Directorate of Religious Affairs in the Ministry of Justice states evangelical Christians represent the fastest growing religious group in the country. Generally religious communities tend to draw their members from across ethnic, political, economic, and racial lines.
There are 732 religious denominations and 144 religious organizations registered with the Department of Reli- gious Affairs of the Ministry of Justice. During the reporting period 10 denominations and 20 religious organiza- tions were registered.
Christian religious groups include Anglican, Baptist, Congregational, Christadelphians, Methodist, Nazarene, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, Seventh-day Adventist, and Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, as well as evangelical, apostolic, and Pentecostal churches. Many small, independent Protestant and Catholic churches that have split from mainstream denominations fuse African traditional beliefs and practices within a Christian framework.
The distinction between Sunni and Shi'a is not particularly important for many local Muslims, and Muslims are more likely to identify themselves by the local religious leader they follow than as Sunni or Shi'a. There were significant differences between the practices of Muslims of African origin and those of South Asian background. In addition African Muslim clerics have increasingly sought training in Egypt, Kuwait, South Africa, and Saudi Arabia, returning with a more fundamental approach than the local traditional, Sufi-inspired Swahili Islam common in the north. The Kuwaiti-funded and Sudanese-managed nongovernmental organization (NGO) African Muslim Agency has conducted humanitarian work, as did the Muslim development agency Aga Khan.
Jewish, Hindu, and Bahá'í Faith groups are registered and constitute a very small percentage of the popu- lation. The country's leading mosques and the Catholic Church have tried to eliminate some traditional indigenous practices from their places of worship, instituting practices that reflect a stricter interpretation of sacred texts. However, some Christian and Muslim adherents continue to incorporate traditional practices and rituals, and religious authorities have generally been permissive of such practices. Foreign missionary groups operate freely in the country. Some groups offer religious teaching centers to their local communities, while others provide scholarships for students to study in their respective countries.
The culture of Mozambique is in large part derived from its history of Bantu, Swahili, and Portuguese rule, and has expanded since independence in 1975. The majority of its inhabitants are Black Africans. The main language is Portuguese. The median religion is Roman Catholicism, but only about 40 percent of the inhabitants are Chris- tian. The main ethnic groups in Mozambique are Makhuwa, Tsonga, Makonde, Shangaan, Shona, Sena, Ndau, and other indigenous groups. There are approximately 45,000 Europeans, and 15,000 South Asians living in Mozambique.
Celebratory days in Mozambique are: Independence Day, June 25; New Year's Day, Jan. 1; Family Day, April 26; Day of Mozambican Women, April 7; Heroes Day, Feb. 3; Ramadan for the 30 days on changing dates according to the moon calendar observed by Muslims; Christmas, Dec. 25, observed by Christians.
The official language is Portuguese; English is sometimes spoken in major cities such as Maputo and Beira. According to the 2007 census, 50.4 percent of the national population aged 5 and older (80.8 percent of people living in urban areas, and 36.3 percent in rural areas) is fluent in Portuguese. The other languages spoken in Mozambique include Emakhuwa (25.3 percent), Xichangana (10.3 percent), Cisena (7.5 percent), Elomwe (7 percent), and Echuwabo (5.1 percent).
In recent years, Mozambique has made reasonable progress in the education sector. The National Education System Law was revised in December 2018 and established a new structure for the sector, increasing mandatory (and free) education from 7-9 years. The duration of the education cycles was restructured, reducing primary education from seven to six years, and increasing secondary education from 5-6 years. The government also recognizes, for the first time, preschool as a sub-sector of education, although it is not required to enter primary.
These changes and more investment and government commitment to keep education expenditure high have led to the progress. Yet, efficiency challenges still plaque the system. There are still almost two million primary-school-age children not attending school. More than one third of students drop out before the third grade, and less than half complete primary, well below the average in Africa.
In upper primary, the gender gap increases, as more girls abandon school prematurely. Due to several factors including high levels of teacher absenteeism, children only have 74 out of the 190 expected school days in the year. In terms of access, only 3.5 percent of children 3-5 years were enrolled in preschool in 2019, but the number of students in primary education doubled between 2004 and 2018.
Aligned with the national and international development Agenda, the education sector plan (ESP) 2020-2029 aims to train ''citizens with knowledge, skills, moral, civic and patriotic values capable of contributing to the development of a cohesive society adapted to the constantly changing world”. Its three priorities are to:
• Ensure inclusion and equity in access, participation, and retention by securing all children, youth, and adults access to a full cycle of school readiness, primary and lower secondary education.
• Ensure the quality of learning by making sure that children, youth, and adults acquire basic literacy, numeracy, and life skills
• Ensure transparent, participatory, efficient, and effective governance by enhancing the capacities of ministry of education’s staff to enable education sector planners and managers to practice evidence-based policy and strategy.
The plan also takes into account natural disasters, which affected the implementation of the previous plan, and includes a stronger gender focus across all priorities.
Performance, music, art
The music of Mozambique ranges from folk music to modern pop and rock. The music is used to serve many purposes from pure entertainment to traditional and religious purposes. Drums made of animal skin and wood are commonly used to play traditional music. The music of Mozambique can serve many purposes, ranging from religious expression to traditional ceremonies. Musical instruments are usually handmade. Some of the instru- ments used in Mozambican musical expression include drums made of wood and animal skin.
The lupembe, a woodwind instrument made from animal horns or wood; and the marimba, which is a kind of xylophone native to Mozambique. The marimba is a popular instrument with the Chopi of the south central coast who are famous for their musical skill and dance. Some music aficienados say that Mozambique's music is similar to reggae and West Indian calypso.
The marimba (a kind of xylophone) and the lupembe (a woodwind instrument made of wood or animal horns) are some other native Mozambican music instruments. The country also has different kinds of dances that vary from tribe to tribe. The Chopi people of country wear animal skins and act out battles. The Makua people dance on stilts around the village. Tufo is another traditional dance performed by women in Mozambique’s northern part. It is used to celebrate Islamic holidays. Other music types of music popular in Mozambique like marrabenta, and other Luso- phone music forms like fado, samba, bossa nova, and maxixe.
Dances are usually intricate, highly developed traditions throughout Mozambique. There are many different kinds of dances from tribe to tribe which are usually ritualistic in nature. The Chopi, for instance, act out battles dressed in animal skins. The men of Makua dress in colorful outfits and masks while dancing on stilts around the village for hours. Groups of women in the northern part of the country perform a traditional dance called tufo, to celebrate celebrate Islamic holidays.
Although Mozambique has limited written literature, it has a rich heritage of oral literature. Storytelling is an important tradition in the country. Written literary works began to be produced in Mozambique with the spread of formal education during the Portuguese colonial period. However, since most of the literary works created during this time were associated with resistance to Portuguese colonialism, it was largely censored. Many writers like Bernardo Honwana were even imprisoned for their work. Today, written literary works in Mozambique cover a variety of styles and are mainly written in Portuguese. However, the literary scene in the country is still not well developed due to widespread poverty and low literacy levels.
The Makonde are renowned for their wood carving and elaborate masks that are commonly used in ritual dances. There are two different kinds of wood carvings: (1) Shetani (evil spirits), which are mostly carved in heavy ebony, tall, and elegantly curved with symbols and nonrepresentational faces; and (2) ujamaa, which are totem-type carvings which illustrate lifelike faces of people and various figures. These sculptures are usually referred to as “family trees” because they tell stories of many generations.
During the last years of the colonial period, Mozambican art reflected the oppression by the colonial power, and became symbol of the resistance. After independence in 1975, the modern art came into a new phase.
The two best known and most influential contemporary Mozambican artists are the painter Malangatana Ngwenya and the sculptor Alberto Chissano. Much of the post-independence art during the 1980s and 1990s reflect the political struggle, civil war, suffering, and starvation.
Folk art of the Mozambicans represent the indigenous cultural beliefs of the country. During the colonial period, art in Mozambique reflected the oppression of the people by the colonial power. Modern art flourished in the country following independence. Besides art, the Mozambicans are also experts in a wide variety of crafts. For example, the Makonde people of Mozambique are well-known for their expertise in wood carving. They also produce elaborate masks that are used in ritual dances.
Mozambican cuisine is rich and varied, reflecting both its traditional roots as well as outside influences. Flavorful spicy stews eaten with rice or steamed cornmeal dough are common. With its long coastline and rich fishing presence, fish is a key part of the national diet. The country is famous for its shellfish, such as prawns and crayfish, and its combination of seafood dishes with the spicy piri-piri sauce (which literally translates to "Spicy-Spicy").
One particular stew that is without Portuguese influence is matapa, which is usually made with cassava leaves, cashews, crab, shrimp and coconut milk. Another important dish is piri-piri chicken, which is grilled chicken basted in piri-piri sauce and served with fries. Like its African neighbors, Mozambique is also blessed with a wide variety of fruits, including citrus produce such as oranges and grapefruit, bananas, mangoes, and coconuts which are enjoyed throughout the nation.
Football or soccer is one of the spectator sports that the people in Mozambique are quite excited to watch and eagerly wait for. There are other sports popular in the country such as basketball and volleyball. Traditional sports in Mozambique are also gaining grounds such as Butterfly, named after the shape of the board, and Capoeira, a form of African martial arts.